On This Day - 30 July 1914
Theatre definitions: Western Front comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Eastern Front comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Source: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London; copyright expired)
Countdown to War
Russia proposes to Germany at 2 a.m. to stop mobilising if Austria would eliminate clauses in ultimatum damaging Serbian sovereignty. Last chance of peace.
Lokal Anzeiger announces German mobilisation. Contradicted officially after time allowed for Russian Ambassador to wire it to St. Petersburg. Germany wires temporisingly to Vienna, but does not forward Russia's "last chance" proposal.
Russia learns of general Austrian mobilisation.
Prince Henry of Prussia wires to King George asking him to secure neutrality of France and Russia. The King says he is trying to persuade them to cease preparations, if Austria will not go beyond Belgrade. Hopes Kaiser will influence Austria.
Austria a little nervous, but refuses to alter the Note.
Russia decides definitely on general mobilisation.
German troops close to French frontier: French troops kept 10 km behind it.
Sir Edward Grey repudiates Bethmann-Hollweg's "infamous proposal" with scorn, but holds out olive branch. No notice taken by Germany.
Mr. Asquith's speech in House of Commons.